"We have found that unexpected risk

is the number one reason an investor abandons his or her investment plan

and fails to achieve his or her financial objectives."

- Leeland Gray


"Investing should be like watching grass grow-

plant seeds and, in time, grass grows - 

the simpler it is, the better we like it."

- Leeland Gray


Two Complementary Approaches To Investing

and a long-term approach is important.

Dalbar, a Boston-based market research firm, has conducted an annual study called the Quantitative Analysis of Investor Behavior (QAIB) for the past several decades which attempts to measure the impact of investor decisions to buy, sell and switch into and out of mutual funds.  As reported year after year, the average mutual fund investor earned significantly less than the actual mutual funds over the same time period - the result of performance chasing, buying high and selling low.  For the 30 year period from 1987 through 2016, the average equity mutual fund investor earned returns of only 3.98%.  While the numbers change from year to year, the conclusion is always the same - investor's emotion-based investing and performance chasing is counterproductive.


Warren Buffett famously said that one of the primary purposes of stock market forecasters is to make fortune tellers look good.  At Green Pastures, we don't try to forecast where the S&P 500 Index will be in six months or try to predict the timing and direction of interest rates.  Your money is too valuable to be managed on the basis of forecasts, predictions, emotions or hunches.  Everything we do in your investment portfolio is based on extensive research to identify an optimal mix of assets at any given time and, as the markets evolve, we make investment shifts accordingly - and with no commissions.*  Keep this in mind as you contemplate the eventual end of this bull market - odds are overwhelming that you will not know when a bear market has begun until well after the fact.


*Except for Annuities which may be recommended as part of an overall asset allocation and/or retirement income planning solution and may include a commission in lieu of fees.

How We Invest

Investing based on facts, not emotions

The Paradox:  Losses are more important than gains

Controlling risk is the key,

One of our primary goals is to reduce risk whenever we can.

While people need good advice, it is human nature to want advice that sounds good.


Wall Street relies heavily on transaction-oriented business being hustled by brokers for its survival - not yours - and financial journalism is dedicated to "emotional marketing" - pitching you whatever is "hot" at the moment, and shunning whatever has gone cold - to motivate you to chase returns and make those transactions and commissions flow.


However, there is often a big difference between the sales pitch and reality.  Performance chasing is not an investment plan - and it is often a recipe for buying high, then selling low, based on fear when there is a market correction.  It is no wonder that research has shown that people who receive frequent sales pitches and news updates on their investments typically earn lower returns than those who get no news at all.

Returns can vary widely in the short run, even with investments that have traditionally been considered conservative and secure.  Owning investments for a longer period of time reduces the impact of year-to-year fluctuations.  Long-term investing creates a smoother investment journey, making your financial road easier and more secure.  Because it increases the likelihood of success, we encourage you to adopt a long-term view of investing and to steer clear of short-term performance chasing.

Many people make investing complicated and stressful - and it doesn't have to be that way.  We have found that most (not all) investors truly don't need professional planners who lock them into expensive and/or complicated investment services, strategies and investments that (1) are too difficult to understand, (2) have a high commission/fee structure, (3) lack transparency, (4) are illiquid, and/or (5) cost a lot of money to liquidate.


Most (not all) investors don't even need a full-scale plan.  Oftentimes, it simply comes down to you determining (a) your financial objectives, (b) a realistic investment time horizon that gives your investments time to work out, (c) a risk attitude assessment that determines both your risk capacity and your risk tolerance, and (d) a good investment management strategy or combination of strategies - which is where Green Pasture's value proposition comes into play.


Our approach to investment management begins with managing exposure to risk.  This means that while we seek to provide the best long-term returns possible, our primary concern is in preserving your principal along the way so you can stick with a plan.  We mind both sides of the risk-reward equation to help you achieve your financial objectives while enjoying peace of mind along the way.

Green Pastures offers two investment management programs for individuals and families:

Defensive Growth Models

Five dynamically managed mutual fund account models for no-load (and load-waived) mutual funds.

> All Weather Models

Three strategically managed mutual fund account models for no-load mutual funds.

> PEACE OF MIND Models
Five combinations of Defensive Growth Models and All Weather Models. 

The Defensive Growth Models and All Weather Models can be put to use as stand-alone investment portfolios, as complements to each other in the PEACE OF MIND Models, or as complements to your investment portfolio held elsewhere.


Click on the Investment Management drop down tabs for an overview on our investment management programs, including performance results and risk/return statistics.

Investment Management Programs

"The investor's chief problem -

and even his worst enemy - is likely to be himself."

- Benjamin Graham

That is why so much of what we do focuses on reducing risk in your portfolio.  By reducing the upward-and-downward movements in the value of your investments, we create more stable returns; more stable returns typically translates into lowering your stress level; and a lower stress level typically translates into producing better long-term investment results for you, than other investments whose returns are more volatile, because it makes it easier for you to stick with a plan long enough to enjoy success.  


We offer strategies for conservative, middle-of-the-road and more adventurous investors.  However, regardless of the strategy, we follow the same basic theme - we do all we can to achieve the results you want at the lowest possible level of volatility and risk.

Green Pastures believes that higher long-term returns can be achieved when you pay as much attention to minimizing losses in declining markets (cyclical and secular bear markets) as you pay attention to maximizing gains in rising markets (cyclical and secular bull markets).

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   Investment Management